บทความ เกจวัดแรงดัน

Light Refreshment

The rising sophistication of emergency lighting techniques signifies that as properly as being a significant part of a building’s life security infrastructure they can also lower your expenses and reduce CO2 emissions due to the advantages intelligent LED-based solutions with superior battery technology have over traditional techniques.
Anyone who has had the misfortune of being in an unfamiliar constructing when a fireplace alarm is activated or a major lighting failure has occurred will perceive the true value of an emergency lighting system. Although we often take these acquainted green and white indicators for granted, emergency lighting’s role, as part of an general life security system, should never be underestimated. Recent years have witnessed important developments within the know-how deployed in these techniques, with the result that they now offer a level of intelligence that combines energy effectivity with reliability and ease-of-use.
Bad Behaviour

The way during which we use vitality is consistently within the highlight and if additional proof was required of the necessity for all of us to deal with our behaviour it got here in a 2013 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It stated that scientists are ninety five p.c sure that we are the ‘dominant cause’ of global warming since the Fifties.
This may not come as a lot of a surprise. However, by way of greater awareness of the consequences of CO2, mixed with the financial implications of rising utility bills, organisations are more keen and in a position than ever to use power wisely. Growing legislation and regulation signifies that businesses everywhere in the world are implementing vitality discount measures. The focus is commonly on adopting renewable vitality applied sciences such as solar photovoltaics (PV), wind turbines and floor and air source warmth pumps as methods to generate energy, whereas others are utilizing constructing administration techniques (BMS) to realize a holistic view of their vitality use and determine ways to lower their consumption.
However, the stress is on to do much more, which is why constructing house owners and managers are having to drill down and look at individual parts of their building providers infrastructures to see whether there any extra savings could be made.
Light Years Ahead

Modern emergency lighting techniques provide the chance for vital energy and cost financial savings. This is due to two key elements – the use of light emitting diode (LED) primarily based lighting and advanced battery expertise.
Traditional emergency lighting systems utilise crude nickel cadmium, nickel metallic hydride or lead acid batteries. They drive the centrally operated system by continually charging, discharging slightly after which recharging – a process that makes use of unnecessary quantities of vitality and quickly decreases the lifecycle of the battery. It signifies that battery life is restricted to between one and four years, dependent upon the application.
State-of-the-art intelligent technology, however, utilises solely the amount of energy wanted to fully charge the emergency lighting batteries, and then shuts the battery down till an emergency scenario occurs. This avoids degradation, prolongs life and reduces power consumption. Some methods are also obtainable with luminaires which are equipped with integral batteries permitting continued operation for a minimal of three hours, even in circumstances the place the control panel or energy cables are damaged. Maintained luminaires may be powered immediately from the line so as not to affect any battery capability therefore leaving the batteries in an “always ready” state.
So what sort of power financial savings could be made as a result? It is estimated that intelligent battery techniques use between 5 and ten p.c vitality of that a traditional battery system would use. Consider เกจวัดแรงดัน of up to 5,000 luminaires – which aren’t unusual in hospitals, for example – and the financial savings soon turn into obvious.
Bright Spark

It is estimated that lighting accounts for more than 19 percent of the world’s complete electrical energy consumption. According to Green LED Solutions, if solely half of worldwide lighting was transformed to LED by 2025, energy use can be minimize by 120GW, saving £66 billion a yr and lowering CO2 emissions from power vegetation by 350Mt over the same period.
LED lighting has seen fast adoption and the worldwide market was price $25.four billion in 2013, in accordance with a Digitimes Research Special Report. LED know-how is both price efficient and environmentally friendly, making it a greener different to different systems that are currently obtainable and permitting working costs to be kept to a minimum without compromising effectivity.
LED expertise is now being utilized in emergency lighting techniques and these new luminaires supply some spectacular financial savings. For occasion, they consume lower than zero.5W, while an identical 8W fluorescent gentle exit luminaire will use approximately 12W. These techniques additionally come with additional vitality saving features, including signage that is related by way of low voltage 40V cabling, which is powered and configured on the identical loop by way of a single panel, giving high levels of control via an automated system.
Testing Times

All emergency lighting methods must be tested on a monthly basis in compliance with BS EN 50172. The check itself usually entails flicking a manual switch, which interrupts the ability provide to the luminaire, so that it illuminates. A full document sheet must be maintained for every emergency luminaire and entered into a logbook, which have to be out there for inspection by the authorities at any time. Failure to provide full test data may find yourself in legal action and closure of the building, and if the emergency lighting is defective, the insurance coverage policy for the constructing could additionally be invalid.
On the surface this all appears reasonable and fulfils the necessities of the Standard, nonetheless, the testing course of itself is flawed and doesn’t essentially result in a protected and fully functional system. All it does is examine that the system works for a quantity of seconds when the manual change is operated – what happens if the system fails 5 minutes after the test? It is not going to be retested for an additional month, so may depart a building’s occupants weak in the meantime.
Also, it does not test just for how lengthy the luminaires will stay on and whether the battery has enough power to take care of operation for the interval specified within the related requirements. The time required to evacuate the premises is dependent upon its size and complexity. The duration itself relies not only on evacuation time but additionally on whether the premises are evacuated instantly the facility and normal lighting fails and/or are reoccupied instantly the supply is restored.
BS EN 50172 states the minimum duration of an emergency lighting system as one hour. However, a minimal duration of three hours should be used for emergency lighting if the premises are not evacuated immediately, as within the case of sleeping accommodation, for instance, or if the premises will be reoccupied instantly the availability is restored with out ready for the batteries to be recharged. It also needs to be famous that to adjust to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101 Life Safety Code, emergency lights are required to remain lit for ninety minutes.
Modern emergency lighting management panels continuously monitor and take a look at performance in actual time. They can be pre-programmed to hold out specific month-to-month, six month-to-month and annual exams and it is also attainable to set operational parameters up to alert when batteries are at 85 % capability, providing a high stage of reassurance that the system will work appropriately beneath all circumstances.

Lighting consumes 19 p.c of all electricity on the earth.
The first LED device was crafted in 1907 by Captain H J Round, a British radio expertise pioneer and a personal assistant to Guglielmo Marconi.
Nick Holonyak Jr is considered ‘the father of the modern LED’. In 1962, while working at General Electric, he developed the first virtually useful visible spectrum LED device for business use.
In 2009, a typical 13W LED lamp emitted 450-650 lumens, which is equivalent to a normal 40W incandescent bulb. LEDs have turn out to be extra efficient, in order that now a 6W LED can simply achieve the identical results.
LEDs produce a protracted service life of between 50,000 hours and one hundred,000 hours. This compares with 2,000-5,000 hours for a halogen bulb and 8,000 hours to fifteen,000 hours for a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL).
Unlike CFLs LEDs do not contain mercury and could be more safely disposed of.
LEDs emit no ultraviolet radiation (UV) or infrared (IR), which makes them good to illuminate expensive objects similar to photographs, collections, paintings and so on.
LEDs produce extra gentle than warmth, which makes them the most secure type of lighting and reduces the risk of fires.
Right Place, Right Time

Evacuation is usually hindered by an absence of detailed information of the inner connectivity of the building area, along with complicated and poorly thought out instructions. Studies have also shown that in these situations occupants usually make use of familiar routes – sometimes using the exit by way of which they entered the constructing. Even extra worryingly, analysis from the University of Greenwich, as a half of its examine known as Human Behaviour in Fire Network (HUBFIN), found that solely 38 percent of people see passive signage in an emergency. This is a daunting statistic and only serves to highlight the significance of siting an emergency lighting system in a method that may guide people to a safe location in the occasion of a mains lighting failure.
BS EN 50172 presents steering on the positioning of luminaires, provides a minimal standard that ought to be utilized and provides guidance on specific hazards and points of emphasis that have to be accounted for. Points of emphasis are necessary places the place lighting must highlight particular hazards, security gear and indicators. These embrace areas close to stairs, close to changes of level, at each change of course, close to firefighting equipment and manual call factors, outside and close to to every final exit, first help factors, at exit doors, and near security signs.
Signs are either internally of externally illuminated and the utmost viewing distances for internally illuminated signs is 200 times the panel height, and one hundred instances the panel peak for externally illuminated indicators. Luminaires must offer 1Lux of output in escape routes and zero.5Lux in open areas. Emergency lighting also wants to be positioned in such a means to make sure that persons are free from disability glare, which can forestall obstructions or indicators from being properly seen.
It is worth remembering that Industry Committee for Emergency Lighting (ICEL) approved products are independently examined and meet the present product and application requirements. Therefore, deciding on merchandise with ICEL approval will provide reassurance of compliance.
Look to the Future

The issues with passive signage are clear from the University of Greenwich’s HUBFIN research, which is why the mixing of fireside detection and emergency lighting techniques is the subsequent step in adding intelligence and greater effectiveness to a life safety infrastructure.
A conventional emergency lighting system does not allow signs to be ‘shut off’, which can allow individuals to unwittingly travel into the path of hazard. In locations corresponding to hospitals and care houses, the place folks usually have restricted mobility, time is of the essence and must not be wasted by having to decipher probably the most appropriate escape route.
By integrating a fireplace detection system with emergency lighting, and by figuring out the place a fire is going down, the proper route can be configured and communicated. For instance, by responding to information sent from the fireplace detectors it’s attainable to put a purple ‘X’ on particular emergency luminaires, which indicators to folks not to exit by way of that specific route. This can additionally be synchronised with the existing PA/VA system, adding another stage of security.
Not only does integration make good sense from a security viewpoint, it has numerous price saving and environmental advantages. It is estimated that it may reduce the entire system’s wiring content material by seventy five p.c, as there would be just one loop with each functions.
Feature Packed

A appropriately specified, put in and maintained emergency lighting system is crucial so as to give occupants a method of evacuating a building safely in the event of a mains lighting failure, or if required, a hearth. The rules, standards and steerage on this topic are comprehensive and the superior LED lighting and battery know-how that is now obtainable combines reliability, performance and value with one other method to save vitality.


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